MINERÍA la mejor puerta de acceso al sector minero MINERÍA / MARZO 2024 / EDICIÓN 558 35 Abstract This study inquired about the amounts that the subnational governments of the Puno region would receive from the mining canon, particularly the district of Corani, the jurisdiction where the Falchani Lithium Project is located, as well as the province of Carabaya and the Regional Government of Puno (Gore-Puno). This would occur from the start of operations of the project, whose owner is the company Macusani Yellowcake, a subsidiary of American Lithium PLC, based in Toronto, Canada. This project aims to become one of the largest lithium deposits in rock (the sixth in the world), which would be extracted through open pit mining and processed by traditional methods (crushing and leaching). The size of this initiative would place Peru among the main producers of battery grade lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE), once the advanced exploration stage is completed to convert the 4.71 million tons of resources into high purity lithium reserves thanks to the values reported in various studies. Its execution would generate economic contributions far above those perceived -to date- in the southern region, which is why the funds to be generated were calculated in two scenarios: an initial one with a production of 20 thousand MT during the first 7 years, and another one operating at full plant capacity at a rate of 75 thousand MT per year, for the rest of the project's life cycle. The impressive figures were estimated based on a value of US$ 40 thousand (price projected by analysts for the next few years) and a cost of US$ 4 thousand per metric ton of lithium. This valuation is conservative to a certain extent, as the volatility of the price due to the high international demand causes it to be calculated upwards. The department of Puno is expected to receive more than 1.4 billion soles annually from the lithiferous canon starting in the eighth year of operations, resources that would multiply by 4.5 times what is currently collected for this item. It should be noted that the calculations were made on resources and not on mineral reserves, since the advanced exploration program must be completed to determine the economic value of the deposit, which could even increase the amount of lithium and therefore the funds to be transferred. From the results obtained, it is possible to notice a notorious increase in the canon, which comes along with a series of problems to be addressed, especially regarding the management of public resources, the acute deficit in terms of management and the lack of effective control mechanisms by the citizens. The recommendations aim to implement measures that make local participation in the definition of development priorities and accountability through representative organizations such as communities and peasant patrols (rondas) effective. servadora, pues la volatilidad del precio por la gran demanda internacional hace que se calcule al alza. Se prevé que el departamento de Puno reciba más de S/ 1,400 millones anuales por canon litífero a partir del octavo año de operaciones, recursos que multiplicarían por 4.5 veces lo percibido en la actualidad por dicho rubro. Cabe advertir que los cálculos se realizaron sobre recursos y no sobre reservas del mineral, en vista de que debe terminar el programa de exploración avanzada para determinar el valor económico del yacimiento, lo que incluso podría incrementar la cantidad de litio y, por ende, los fondos a ser transferidos.