MINERÍA la mejor puerta de acceso al sector minero MINERÍA / DICIEMBRE 2023 / EDICIÓN 555 17 Abstract In the coming years, Peru must decide on the future of the energy matrix that will allow for a true energy transition accompanied by a sustainable economic and ecological transition over time towards the year 2050. The study reviews the historical behavior of Peru's energy matrix and concludes that it does not have a long-term energy policy that allows the integration of renewable energies even though it has the competitive advantage of being a country with a high renewable energy potential of 108,000 MW, of which only 5,700 MW (5.3%) are used. Electricity accounts for 20.5% of national energy consumption, so there is great potential for electricity from renewable sources to displace the use of fossil fuels, which are finite resources in time and which we do not produce in Peru. The energy consumption matrix is historically dependent on fossil fuels; its share in 2019 was 63.5%; Camisea gas replaced part of the consumption of traditional fuels (oil, coal, LPG). The mining sector consumes 9% of Peru's energy, being one of the sectors that contributes the least to CO2 emissions in Peru with 2.5% of the total, ranking as one of the least CO2 polluting sectors, far behind transportation, fishing, residential/ commercial and power generation. For the mining sector, energy efficiency policies should be applied and fossil fuel consumption should be transferred to electricity, which is less polluting. The LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) program is used to analyze three scenarios with different energy demand and supply conditions up to 2050 for the Peruvian electricity system: BAU (Business As Usual) scenario based on the continuity of existing events and political decisions, P2C (Paris 2°C) scenario based on compliance with the Paris Agreement commitment, and TGT (Target) scenario based on decarbonization. The results confirm that it is feasible to have a true Energy Transition while maintaining GDP growth, limiting carbon emissions, electrifying transportation, generating energy efficiency policies and using the potential of available renewable energies, by 2050 in a TGT scenario of total decarbonization, an increase of 260% of generation capacity will be required, reaching 33,788 MW, the solar/wind renewable mix would take the lead with a participation of 60.1% (20,660 MW), accompanied by a hydraulic participation with 38.7% (13,000 MW) and a null thermal participation of hydrocarbon origin in the production of electric energy, with natural gas being destined to other more efficient activities such as heat production. The study concludes that in order to reduce the carbon footprint in mining, the following route is proposed: a) With PPA, contract or self-produce clean and competitive energy, b) Generate energy efficiencies in the processes and c) Electrify the internal energy matrix. Regulatory changes are recommended to accelerate the energy transition: the "Open Access" criterion for electricity systems should be eliminated for private company assets and should only be applied to assets concessioned by the state to reinforce the networks. Eliminate the energy generation limit for autoproducers of 5% of the system's demand, in order to encourage own investment in renewable energies. Refocus current fossil fuel subsidies to promote a